Unlike the genomes of most organisms including humans, animals, plants, and bacteria which are made up of double-stranded DNA, many viral genomes are made up of a different, single-stranded nucleic acid called RNA. This feature could be an advantage for diagnosis of infection with novel pandemic strains.
This seems to suggest that once one form of B strain virus emerges, it is highly unlikely that another strain with similar serological qualities will return. The risk to laboratory workers is unknown at present, but the pandemic potential is thought to be significant. Avian viruses tend to prefer sialic acid alpha galactose, which, in humans, is found in the terminal bronchi and alveoli.
Direct immunofluorescence DFA methods are faster and less labor intensive than IFA but are less sensitive and are currently only available for genus-specific detection see other rapid direct tests.
It was during this wave that the disease spread throughout most of the rest of the world. However, this effort failed to transmit the disease because they inoculated only filtered material.
Avian influenza ie, human infection with avian H5N1 influenza virus is transmitted primarily through direct contact with diseased or deceased birds infected with the virus. Human influenza virus[ edit ] "Human influenza virus" usually refers to those subtypes that spread widely among humans.
Viruses identical or closely related to the human form of the infection can be isolated from ducks, turkeys, swine, horses, and many other species of warm-blooded vertebrates, as well.
As future policy responses to emerging infectious diseases will not succeed without the trust and understanding of the public, officials must revise the way they think about and characterize emerging diseases. Swine influenza viruses have the ability to bind both types of sialic acid receptors.
Meanwhile, the disease was spreading outward from Southeast Asia. And OAS may increase the danger of influenza in years when the vaccine is not well matched to circulating influenza strains. It should be kept in mind, however, that these rapid tests have limited sensitivities and predictive values; false-negative results are common, especially when influenza activity is high, and false-positive results can also occur, especially when influenza activity is low.
A pair of viral genes code for two surface glycoproteins, haemagglutinin H and neuraminidase Nthe crucial antigens against which the host develops immunological defenses. Sensitivity is generally greater in children than adults and is greater early in the course of illness.
The microneutralization assay can sensitively and specifically detect H5N1 antibody in patients with H5N1 influenza. Noncontemporary, wild-type human influenza H2N2 strains should be handled with increased caution.
Correspondence to Peter Doshi e-mail: The early presentation of mild or moderate cases of flavivirus infections eg, dengue may initially mimic influenza.
Bridging the gap Had the novel H1N1 virus caused exceptionally severe disease, the extensive preparations and planning in recent years would have surely put us in a better position to respond to such a crisis, and decision-making at WHO would not have come under intense scrutiny.
Because pigs have been susceptible to both human and avian influenza strains, many experts believe that combined swine and duck farms in some parts of Asia may have facilitated antigenic shifts and the evolution of previous pandemic influenza strains.Get the latest health news, diet & fitness information, medical research, health care trends and health issues that affect you and your family on joeshammas.com The elusive definition of pandemic influenza Peter Doshi a.
a. Program in History, Anthropology, Science, Technology and Society, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue (E), Cambridge, MA,United States of America. Influenza was discovered not by a direct study of the disease in humans, but rather from studies on animal diseases.
InJ.S. Koen, a veterinarian, observed a disease in pigs which was believed to be the same disease as the now famous “Spanish” influenza pandemic of Influenza A virus causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of the Alphainfluenzavirus genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses.
Strains of all subtypes of influenza A virus have been isolated from wild birds, although disease is uncommon. Some isolates of influenza A virus cause severe disease both in domestic poultry and, rarely, in humans.
The administration of influenza vaccine is the single most important measure in preventing or attenuating influenza infection and preventing mortality. Influenza Updates: was a high severity, H3N2-predominant season.; Flu activity in the U.S. is low now, but expected to pick up in the Fall.
CDC on Flu Vaccine: CDC’s vaccine recommendations for the flu season are now available.; CDC recommends yearly flu vaccination for people 6 months and older.Download